Contents and abstracts


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Historical Psychology & Sociology: Contents and Abstracts

Social Violence: A Comparative Historical View

Interview with Professor Steven Pinker about his book, “The Better Angels of Our Nature. The Decline of Violence in History and Its Causes” (pp. 5–7).

Pinker’s monograph demonstrates that the level of social violence has been declining through the millennia of human history. What are the author’s arguments and how are they understood in the USA?

Sergei D. Kavtaradze. War archetypes: violence, the unconscious and struggle for basic needs (pp. 8–25).

This is a multidisciplinary analysis of the mass unconscious phenomena in the military conflicts and it is based on ethnographical observations; anthropological, historical and sociological data; and modern literature, including text and graphic images. Observation of everyday and military behavior traditions of the Surma tribe (Ethiopia) are taken from the author’s notes, as well as from the photo and video footage collected on the Ethiopia-Sudan border during a cinematic expedition in March – April 2010.

Keywords: archetype, war, peace, conflict, battle, propaganda, the unconscious, Surma, sagne.

Psychology and Economy

Natalia N. Zarubina. The influence of money on the formation of social space
(pp. 26–42).

The influence of various forms of money and monetary mentality on the formation of social space is investigated using the methods developed by George Zimmel, Sigmund Bauman, Manuel Castells and other scientists. In market exchange, money serves as a means for constructing local spaces and reflects their geo-economic, political, symbolic and social unity, while the virtual money of the global financial economy is indifferent to real spaces and forms its own “space of flows”. The exterritorial money helps construct a new space perspective, which reevaluates specific territories, and that includes or excludes them from global development.

Keywords: social constructing, space, money, monetary mentality, social nets, globalization.

Conceptions of History

Svetlana P. Chernozub. The concept of national science in the new civilization discourse (pp. 43–61).

The author deals with the formation of new concept of national science. This partly supplements, and partly competes with traditional concepts based on universal views of science as an activity that does not influence cultural, religious, moral, or psychological bases of a society.

Keywords: national science, cultural (anthropological) concept of a national science, science and “the conflict of civilizations”.

Andrey A. Zenko. Social constructing of Apollonic and Dionysian origins in Ancient Greek mythology (pp. 62–70).

Apollonic and Dionysian origins are compared in terms of their influence on designing social relations and types of sociality.

Keywords: myth, sociality, types of society, Apollo, Dionysus.

Nikolay S. Rozov. Mental and institutional factors in the historical dynamics of Russian cycles (pp. 71–92).

The regular interactions between the Ruler and the Elite, as well as their transforming, vital and political strategies, explain cyclical processes in Russian history. The author considers a simplified three-step cycle: ‘Stagnation’ – ‘Crisis’ – ‘Authoritarian recoil’ – ‘Stagnation’. The principles of psychological and social dynamics as well as unpremeditated consequences of these strategies are considered.

Keywords: Russian history, cycles, dynamics, historical macro-sociology, mentality, habits, frame, crisis, political strategies, practices, unpremeditated consequences.

Social-Psychological Pictures of History

Eduard S. Kulpin. Lessons of modernization of Peter I: Social-natural approach (pp. 93–110).

There have been several periods of modernization in Russian history. The one during Peter I's reign attracts special attention. Was it successful? The fact is that afterwards Russia was internationally competitive for seven generations but it did not develop politically. Therefore, in the 19th century, newer and greater transformations were required. Revolution and civil war were the consequences of the further reforms, although their effect was also limited. Now the question is how to make successful modernization.

Keywords: social-natural history, modernization, basic value system, technologies, social contract.

Andrey L. Andreyev. Early Enlightenment in Moscow: The stage of ‘intellectual heating’ in Russian culture (pp. 111–128).

A historical and sociological survey of the formation of Russian culture in the Modern Period is considered in terms of the mental premises of scientific rationality. The emergence of urban rationalism in Russia and in the West, amplification of cognitive motivations, levels of literacy and peculiarities in education are considered. Using cross-cultural methods, the author shows that modernization in Russia has been autonomous to a considerable extent and developed simultaneously with Renaissance Europe, although in different forms.

Keywords: modernization, urban rationalism, the Renaissance, Orthodox mentality, intellectual practices, intellectual environments, intellectual competition, Faustian spirit, literacy.

Alexander N. Medved’. Perception of time in the 15th century Russia (pp. 129–135).

The article shows that in the 15th century Russians were more attentive to long periods (days, weeks and months) than to short periods (hours and minutes). The significance of the first mechanical watch is discussed: the watch was then considered no more than a peculiarity, which had no importance in everyday life.

Keywords: Ancient Rus, time, mechanic watch, Iatromathematics, urban everyday life, calendar, Afanasy Nikitin.

Julia E. Pavlova. Hard drinking as a deviation in Russian culture of the 16th – 17th century (pp. 136–146).

The origin of hard drinking is linked to the anthropogenic ecological crisis and its social consequences in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Keywords: hard drinking, deviation, norm, crisis, social-natural history, anomie, collective unconscious, culture, values, stereotypes, traditions, ideals.

Konstantin G. Frumkin. The complexity of social structures as a source of dramatic themes (pp. 147–163).

A major source of themes in Western drama since antiquity has been the conflict
of identities. Someone usually belongs simultaneously to different communities, while contradictions between those communities lead to mental conflicts. What is called
“the struggle between feeling and duty” has been the most typical kind of such conflicts in world drama. The article shows how the details of such collisions reflect the evolution of modern European moral values.

Keywords: social structure, communities, borders, conflict, dramaturgy, subject.

Psychological History of Modernity

Dmitri V. Gromov. Moral panic as a development mechanism for some youth subcultures in the USSR and Russia (pp. 164–178).

The article deals with the origination of “moral panics” (S. Cohen’s term) in the USSR and Russia from 1970 to the 2010s. Measures against youth subcultures actually stimulated their quantitative growth and qualitative changes. Mass media played a leading role in the process.

Keywords: youth, youth subcultures, moral panic, social phobias, mass media.

Scientific Heritage

Arnold J. Toynbee. A letter to Nikolay I. Konrad (pp. 179–183).

The outstanding English historian recognizes in the letter to his Soviet colleague that he underestimated continuity in human history. This underestimation drew him to overstress cyclic phenomena in his famous book, A Study of History.

Keywords: history, civilizations, cycle, continuity.

Stories of the Future

Alexander V. Akimov. World civilizations up to 2100 (pp. 184–203).

Prospective calculations for the European, Orthodox, Chinese, Japanese, Indian,
Islamic, African and Latin American civilizations are proposed. They include population dynamics, need for fuel, energy and agricultural resources, as well as fresh water up to 2100. Scenarios of world development are described.

Keywords: long-term forecast, population number, resources, modern civilizations, scenarios of development.

Facts and prospects of modernization in China (pp. 204–212).

The article presents a fragment from the collective monograph, which sums up ten annual reports (2001–2010) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on current and prospective effects of modernization in China and the world.

Keywords: modernization, phase, peculiarities, China.

Reviews

Leonid B. Alaev. Review on “Cycles, crises, traps of the modern World-System” by L. E. Grinin and A. V. Korotayev (pp. 213–219).

Contents and abstracts (pp. 220–222)

Authors of the issue (p. 223)

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