Contents and abstracts

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Historical Psychology & Sociology: Contents and Abstracts

Social Violence: A Comparative Historical View

Sergei A. Nefedov. The 1933 catastrophe: Death of traditional society.

A sharp break in the mentality of Russian peasantry happened in 1930–1933, particularly among peasants in the southern regions of the USSR. Collectivization was less painful in the central regions, where the peasantry had been more accustomed to communal life. Those in the southern regions had ignored communal practices. As a result, violent destruction of peasant traditions provoked the death of not only of their traditional society but the deaths of many millions of people who could not adapt to the new order.

Keywords: collectivization, modernization, peasant mentality, dispossession, grain procurements, agrarian strike, forced starvation of 1933.

Elena S. Senyavskaya. “No war without sex and wine”: Front-line morals in the First World War.

An important aspect of the Russian army’s front-line existence in the First World War is represented in letters, diaries and memories. These show the devaluation of traditional moral values and a corruption of moral bases under extreme military situations. This was manifested in soldiers’ hard drinking – in spite of an official dry policy, sexual dissoluteness, marauding, hatred of ‘rear and staff rats’, and other such manifestations.

Keywords: First World War, front-line daily occurrence, culture shock, front-line morals, asocial behavior, falling discipline, army decomposition.

Sergey D. Kavtaradze. Manipulation of archetypical consciousness: Nazi Germany.

Comparative analysis of Nordic mythology and Third Reich policy demonstrates the impact of German culture archetypes on preparation and implementation of military decisions, as well as on their society's behavior under the conditions of total war.

Keywords: archetype, behavior, fate, ruling, unconscious.

Social-Psychological Pictures of History

Sergei V. Bogdanov. Young people in the shadow economy of the USSR (1917–1991).

Reasons and peculiarities of young people’s involvement in non-formal economic activities like child speculation inside the totalitarian political regime are considered. Evolution of the Soviet state’s policy in respect to non-formal economic actors is retraced.

Keywords: young people, shadow economy, economic delinquencies, speculation, state privacy theft, small business owners, illegal business.

Vladimir A. Somov. Game use to educate a ‘generation of winners’ in the 1930s USSR.

A generational approach and cognitive history are used to research the causal links between the education system in the 1930s and personal quality formation in the generation that would win the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945).

Keywords: game, education, ‘generation of winners’.

Alexander S. Kovalev. The social status of the elderly and disabled in the first third of the 20th century in Russia (a research of Siberian experience).

Archival documents from Siberia are analyzed to consider the conditions for the elderly and disabled individuals in pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary times. The author shows that, in the first third of the 20th century, a preservation of working ability became the leading criterion to define one’s social status. The meaning and evolution of the concepts of ‘elderly person’ and ‘invalid’ are researched in detail.

Keywords: disabled worker, disabled soldier, ‘neglected’ invalids, incapacity for work, elderly individuals, social policy, social status.

Alla V. Litiagina. Determinants of West Siberian townsfolk’s mentality in the second half of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries.

Common and specific features in the mentality of different classes are studied by using workflow documents, recollections, memoires, etc. As a result, cultural aspects among West Siberian inhabitants in pre-Soviet time are revealed.

Keywords: mentality, townsfolk, estate psychology, West Siberia, Orthodoxy.

Histories of the Future

Leonid E. Grinin. “Dragon” and “tiger”: Comparative development patterns of China and India.

The importance of developing countries, in contrast to the United States and Western Europe, is expected to increase in the near future, especially China and India. How will these two economies develop? Population growth in China will cease and could even start to decline. Meanwhile, population in India will continue to increase and, in ten years, the country will be the most populous in the world. Economically and politically, India and China will be in stark contrast: China will achieve phenomenal success and world leadership, while India will collapse due to its demographic, social and political problems. The author investigates the patterns of development in China and India separately and then compares them.

Keywords: China, India, globalization, Third world, East-Asian model, Chinese model, Indian model, growing economies, poverty, authoritarianism, democracy, centre, periphery.

Viacheslav Ya. Belokrenytsky. World perspectives in the 21st century.

The author analyses scenarios of development in various countries and regions of the world, as presented in a monograph by two famous Russian researchers, economists and political scientists: “A.V. Akimov & A.I. Yakovlev. Civilizations in the 21st century: Problems and perspectives of development”. Moscow: MSU, 2012. 247p.

Keywords: variability, development, civilizations, demography, long-term forecasts, resource base, fuel, energy and food resources, modernization, symbiosis, tradition, modernity, globalization, the East, Russia.

Valery A. Nekhamkin. Globalist and anti-globalist mentalities.

Two dominant mentalities are considered – globalist and anti-globalist. Their analysis includes cognitive structures, as well as individual and public attitudes. The key thesis is that a globalist mentality cannot exist without its alternative.

Keywords: globalist mentality, anti-globalist mentality, individual and mass mentality, mental structure, attitude.

Nikolai I. Gubanov, Nikolai N. Gubanov. Role of mentality in overcoming global crises.

Transformations in both élite and mass mentalities are necessary for effective social response to human-made crises. The authors describe such transformations that led to a solution of crises in various époques. The new concept of ‘global mentality’ is used to research the perspectives of overcoming modern global challenges.

Keywords: mentality, historical challenges, human-made crises, global problems, globalist mentality, multi-lingualism.

Theories of History

Zinara Z. Mukhina. A model of innovation-introduction in the peasant space of post-reform Russia (A complexity theory view).

A model for explaining new structures in peasant society that took place under outside influences is considered. The model is based on modern self-organization theory. The primary result of these influences was a decline in patriarchal lifestyle, as well as an increase of individualism and new economic relations.

Keywords: tradition, innovation, variability, parameter of order, peasant society, peasant space, evolution.

Iranian Culture in Space and Time

Sharif M. Shukurov. Two excursi into Iranian art and architecture.

Two ideas are developed in this paper: One is derived from Avicenna and the other is original. These two themes represent the search for a way to assess Great Iran’s culture. The author’s belief is that culture cannot be measured by a single standard. One set of measures corresponds to an ontological problem and the other to an ontic problem. We are interested in beautification of existence and the particular reference points for a ‘good perception’ of art and architecture.

Keywords: written language, measure, perception, architecture, transformations, music.

Lana M. Ravandi-Fadai. Time travels in Iran.

This article, written in the form of a reminiscence of several personal visits and discussions with the renowned Iranian historian and teacher, Doctor Mohammed Bastani Parizi, explores his unique approach to history. Over decades of scholarly work and dozens of books, Dr. Parizi has focused on his native region of Kerman, in which he finds the history, not only of Iran, but of civilization. In one book, Dr. Parizi takes his method of revealing the universal in the particular even further, by examining the way in which a small street reflects the history of an entire city, and by extension a country. Iran, with its millennia of history and synchronous elements of modernity and antiquity, is a fitting world for Dr. Parizi's historical circumnavigations, which are always grounded in humanistic values.

Keywords: history, big history, universality, Iran, Kerman, meeting of ancient and modern.

Scientific Heritage

Arcady G. Gornfeld (1867–1941). National minorities and Russian intelligentsia.

The paper was written in 1917 and then updated and re-published in 1924. It is a reflection about a collection of Finnish literature (in 1917, Finland was a part of Russian Empire).

Keywords: national minorities, Russian intelligentsia, Russia, Finland.

Contents and abstracts (pp. 219–222)

Authors of the issue (p. 223)