Contents and abstracts


Журнал: Том 8, номер 2 / 2015 - подписаться на статьи журнала

Social-Psychological Surveys of History

Victor F. Petrenko, Olga V. Mitina, and Igor N. Karitsky. On researching mentalities (рр. 5–32).

The paper analyses methods for investigating collective mentalities which are the world vision of a certain ethnic or religious group. The paper presents an empirical study of ethnic mentalities of the Russian and Daghestani women including the everyday female stereotypes; the research is performed in the context of investigating the Eurasian world. The psycho-semantic method of multiple identifications was employed to construct the semantic spaces of social stereotypes.

Keywords: mentality, psycho-semantics, Eurasian world, Eurasian mentality, women’s’ stereotypes.

Svetlana A. Vasilieva. The rationalist theology of the English Protestants in the 18th century and its influence on the criminal law (рр. 32–39).

The article analyses the problem of reconsidering penalties in the theological doctrines of the eighteenth-century English Protestantism. The author presents contrasting conceptions spread in foreign scientific literature, which try to explain theological and political reasons of the English penal law reform. The author argues that the socially active adepts of various branches in the English Protestantism extrapolated their religious views on the system of penalties execution; this laid the humanist foundation of the penitential reforms both in Great Britain and in the continental Europe.

Keywords: England, ‘Religious society of friends’, penitential reform, death penalty, Protestantism.

Aleksey G. Poliakov. The religious conflict in the context of modernization pro-cesses in the 1920 – 1930s (the Victorian trend in the Russian Orthodox Church) (рр. 40–44).

The religious factor in the perception of the Victorian trend in the Russian Orthodox Church by the Orthodox community is considered in the context of negative traditionalist reaction to the modernization processes in the country.

Keywords: modernization, traditionalism, religious motivation, conflict, Russian Orthodox Church, Victorian movement.

Eugene P. Vorobyov. Social and psychological aspects of the peasants’ movement in the Volga Region in 1861–1904 (рр. 45–63).

The author investigates the mental peculiarities of the peasants’ protest. The archives help discover the regularities in the peasants’ behavior during the conflicts with the authorities or the landowners. The paper shows that the actions of the Volga Region peasants were becoming more and more rational in the late 19th – early 20th centuries.

Keywords: peasant movement, social psychology, Saratov Province, Astrakhan Province, community.

Sergei N. Folomeev. Power and society in the condition of crisis: Social consequences of famine in 1891–1892 in the Samara Region (рр. 64–79).

The circumstances of mass famine in the Volga Region and the attitudes of both the authorities and various social and political groups toward the aid for the hungry people and their practical activities are analyzed.

Keywords: power, society, crisis, famine.

Stepan S. Pigar’. Traditions of democracy and the forms of people’s self-organization in the 19th century West Caucasus (the Abkhazian case) (рр. 80–97).

The paper considers traditions and people’s self-organization forms in the 19th century Abkhazia, which allowed the population to provide an acceptable life level without rigid hierarchical control structures. Kindred and territorial self-controlling communities were the dominant forms of human consolidation, which substituted the bureaucratic institutions.

Keywords: the Caucasus, self-organization, collective, group solidarity, mountain peoples, self-government.

Natalia A. Garazha. The psychological aspects of interethnic relations between the workers from the East and the Soviet war prisoners during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945) (рр. 98–107).

Peculiarities of the relations among the representatives of various ethnic groups in the common everyday labor camp life and violent job are investigated. The Nazi authorities were provoking conflicts among national groups to better manage and exploit people; this was one of the premises for the interpersonal tensions. Individuals united by common misfortune of captivity and hard labor experienced considerable psychological pressure aimed at subverting their unity and consciousness of belonging to a definite people, value system and life ideals.

Keywords: workers from the East (ostarbiters), war prisoners, the Great Patriotic War, the Third Reich, nationality.

Vladimir А. Somov. The Soviet radio-front: Radio and promoting patriotism in the Soviet Union of the 1930s (рр. 108–121).

This article examines the impact of children's radio programs on promoting patriotism of the 1930s generation. By using archival materials, periodicals and sources of personal origin and basing on the generational approach and cognitive history, the author analyzes the content of children's radio programs and its impact on the emotional sphere of the child in the prewar time.

Keywords: USSR, radio, education, patriotism, the Great Patriotic War.

Psychological history of modernity

Fakhime Saberi. External factors in modern political processes in Egypt (рр. 122–129).

The article analyzes the influence of the external political factors on the political processes and social situation in Arab Republic of Egypt, including the connection between the inner policy toward the Islamic movements and relations with Egypt’s main Western ally, the USA.

Keywords: Islamic radicalism, Islamist movements, the Islamists, political process, political reforms, human rights.

Personality in history

Inga V. Maslova and Nailia I. Ismailova. Historical phenomenon of “role changing”: The psychological aspect of gender identity in history (рр. 130–140).

The authors study the case of changing gender identity by the example of Nadezhda Durova, the participant the Patriotic War 1812. The existential crisis in her formative years became dominant in Durova’s life. The woman overcame the conflict by changing her gender role and accepting male identity, which was the meaning-forming factor in her life and promoted her success in life and military career.

Keywords: gender identity, historical psychology, Nadezhda Durova.

Conceptions of history

Michail V. Chernikov and Larisa S. Perevozchikova. Two categories of “Truth” in the Russian culture (рр. 141–157).

The two key concepts in the Russian cultural tradition and language are compared: Truth as correspondence of the statement to inner reality (pravda) and Truth as correspondence to outer reality (istina). Their relation is considered in the context of historically successive receptions of determinant Western worldview paradigms by the Russian culture: the pagan, the Christian and the New European (secular) ones. The relation and conceptual collisions in the meaning field between the two concepts are considered.

Keywords: truth (pravda; istina) worldview, paradigm, Russia, culture, philosophy.

Edward E. Shultz. “Simulating revolutions”: Towards the discussion on the stages (рр. 158–173).

The conceptions and “models” of revolution are considered in their historical aspect: the stages and phases that any revolution (or its certain type) passes through; the limits of the phenomenon itself and of its parts; the algorithm that is a succession of actions and the vector of development. The vectors in development of revolution and its phases like Thermidor and Bonapartism are especially attended. The “psychology of revolution” as the leading determinant of its trend and phases is considered.

Keywords: theory of revolution, sociology of revolution, psychology of revolution, Thermidor, Bonapartism, counterrevolution.

Ilya V. Sidorchuk. Targets and perspectives of the History of leisure (рр. 174–186).

The article considers targets and perspectives of researching the History of leisure in the Russian historical science. In particular, it studies the appeared and developed research practices of leisure by various branches of science in Russia and in the West. Interdisciplinary approaches to the subject are evaluated, as well as the opportunities to involve the methods of related humanitarian branches.

Keywords: history, culture, leisure, everyday life, recreation, interdisciplinary studies.

Scientific Heritage

Marina P. Mokhnacheva (1952–2014). Historical psychology and history of psychology: Current stage in cross-disciplinary interaction problems (рр. 187–197).

The text represents the author’s report in the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) on the current relations between historical psychology and historiography. The main attention is paid to the changing margins between the subject fields and disciplinary competences. The information potential of researches in history, anthropology, sociology, political and cultural sciences is considered through the prism of historical psychology as the key base for the investigations of world civilization, history of science and culture. “Personal History” (biography) is used as a typical example.

Keywords: historiography, historical psychology, intellectual history, biographics, conceptology, system-vectorial approach.

Essay

Alexander V. Katsura. A bitter field of freedom (рр. 198–218).

A passion for duels, which preoccupied Russian aristocrats from the 17th through the 18th and the 19th centuries, not only indicated their readiness to fight for personal dignity and honor but also expressed their unquenchable drive for liberty, a condition lacking in their despotic society. In this manner, the noblemen, officers and poets felt themselves to be free individuals on the dueling field, ones who had the right to decide their own lives and deaths. By the same logic, the authorities actively confronted the dueling tradition during these centuries to stop the tradition and further authoritarian control. The dueling practices helped form strong and independent personalities among the Russian elite.

Keywords: duel, honor, freedom, rules, gentry, officers, poetry, national character, nobleness, monarchy, democracy, morals.

Contents and abstracts (pp. 219–222)

Authors of the issue (p. 223)

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