Журнал: Философия и общество. Выпуск №1(78)/2016 - подписаться на статьи журнала


Alexander Razin. What does Philosophy Teach Us? (рр. 5–28)

The present paper focuses on the functions of philosophy while the subject matter is philosophy as the general world outlook and adaptation of a human to the world. This issue is revealed in connection with the analysis of normative systems that allow us to construct social reality and to adapt to the world, which we cannot understand to the full in theoretical terms. The author uses a systematic methodology for considering the society and shows the possibility of applying the criterion of truth to normative systems; he also notes that a positive resolution of this issue is an important aspect of moral foundation problem. The author claims that duty can be deduced from existence reality. In this context, morality is examined in the light of the historical stages of its development. The true world outlook systems are determined by the degree of confidence that they can give to a human for adoption of a positive attitude towards the world. The peculiarity of value consciousness is revealed basing on the correlation values with the societal normative systems. It is shown that the validity of the initial assessments of the emerging reality is confirmed on the basis of correlated system of norms that ensure the sustainability of the forms of social communication.

Keywords: world outlook, value, evaluation, ethics, morality, norm, adoption, duty, reality, confidence.

Arkady Ursul. The Emergence of Sustainable Civilization: New Global Objectives (рр. 29–56).

The subject of the study is the formation of sustainable development (SD) paradigm in connection with the adoption of a new agenda for sustainable development for the period up to 2030. The new global goals of SD continuing MDGs include 17 targets for sustainable development and 169 related tasks. The author aims at showing that the future of SD as a new form of civilization from the very beginning had a ‘target orientation’ and involves awareness and setting a whole hierarchy of goals required for the establishment of effective global governance. In the future, global development in its ‘human’ component should be the objectives and principles of sustainable development, which will be refined with each new step in implementing this type of socio-natural evolution.

We use complex evolutionary, historical and system-activity approach, as well as the methods of conceptual modeling and studies of the future, especially the noospheric and futurological approach that directs the interdisciplinary scientific research to use normative forecasting and ‘target formation’ to the global sustainability movement.

The author found that SD is presented as the most appropriate and safe type of socio-natural evolution, aimed at preserving civilization and biosphere, their co-existence and co-evolution. And global development becomes sustainable development if it is reasonable and rationally managed on a planetary scale thus, reducing or even eliminating many negative trends and consequences. He also defines the existential goal of SD related to survival and existence of humankind, as well as preserving environment. The author argues that the SD concept must be radically transformed into a ‘global dimension’ and can no longer be limited to the currently known ‘target triad’ of connecting economy, ecology, and social sphere. It is pointed out that in Russia they recognize another albeit remote, but very important in the conceptual and theoretical terms global strategic goal of ‘sustainable transition’ – to the formation of the noosphere.

Keywords: environmental problems, existential purpose, global development, global governance, MDG, SDG, noosphere, security, sustainable development, United Nations.

Arnold Erakhtin. The Main Issue or Issues of Philosophy (рр. 57–67).

The basic issue of philosophy plays a peculiar role in the world philosophy since hardly any more or less developed philosophical conception can avoid it. But in the modern Russian philosophy it was ostracised and eliminated from school-books and manuals without any explanation. The authors who deny the presence of this ‘basic issue’ try to ‘dissolve’ it in numerous other ‘basic’ issues. Based on that, they also deny the struggle between materialism and idealism in the history of philosophy.

The article shows that the criticism of the basic issue of philosophy is poorly studied and is of hypothetical nature since it is based on the misinterpretation of the position of Friedrich Engels who was the first to give the clear definition of this issue.

Keywords: monism, pluralism, basic issue of philosophy, philosophy and religion, materialism and idealism, classical and modern Russian philosophy.

Yuri Oleynikov. The Indicators of a Mature Society (рр. 68–85).

The present article reviews the concepts of the ideal or mature society developed in foreign and domestic philosophy. The special attention is given to revealing the qualitative characteristics of the society becoming mature and growing out from infantile – immature – state of humankind's being.

Keywords: mature society, an infantile person, ideal state, development, becoming, being, Society, history.

Yuri Markov. The Intricacies of Moral Choice (рр. 86–103).

In the article it is shown that over the last centuries moral values have been distort and put back into the background. This is essentially manifested in the political sphere. The relationships between moral and politics under socialism made possible the emergence of the phenomenon of Marxist Ethics. Finally, under the influence of former and contemporary factors the problem of moral choice has acquired an extremely difficult character. The way out is in the transition to a social system involving the state and co-operative (self-governing) structure.

Keywords: justice, morals, policy, Marxism, state and cooperative system.

Yelena Pilyugina. The Postmodernist Neomythology (рр. 104–117).

This article examines the phenomenon of pan-mythologizing of reality in contemporary postmodern society. The author compares cultural-historical myths of the traditional society, the ideology of modern society and neo-mythology postmodern society. In the context of the demarcation between traditional myths, ideologies, and contemporary mythologemas the author analyzes the points of instability of the modern global social space as a singular basis of the current information war.

Keywords: mythologema, myth, ideology, pan-mythologizing of reality, information war, the postmodern neo-mythology.

Galina Chernogoetseva. The Responsibility within Professional Activity (рр. 118–127).

The present article considers the problem of peculiar forms of moral responsibility in professional activity. As methodological basis we use the achievements of philosophical thought presented in the works of Russian and foreign philosophers. It is shown that personal freedom as the subject of all types of professional activity assumes responsibility not only for everything done, but also for everything that is not done. Due to the complication of social life and unknown development of productive forces in the modern world, the responsibility increased in the sphere of professional activity to such an extent that many experts believe it possible to speak about institutional forms in the development of professional Ethics. The increasing complexity and interdependence of the world, more and more intensive development of science and various technologies define the responsibility as the major value that allows surviving of a the person and the world.

Keywords: Subject, society, person, freedom, activity, responsibility.

A Letter to the Editor

Yuri Semenov. ‘The Anthropological Approach in Social Theory” – Nothing New, Interesting and Useful (рр. 128–132).


Alexander Chumakov and Zoya Denikina. The Dialectics of the Theory and Practice of the Economic Development. Review of Khasbulatov R. I. The Decline of the Market Fundamentalism. Theory, Policy, and Conflicts. 2 vols. Moscow: Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, 2014 (рр. 133–140).