Contents and Abstracts


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Contents and Abstracts

Theory

Viktor Werner, Malwina Chuda-Granat. Lev Karsavin’s idea of “vseedinstvo”, or “all-encompassing unity”– between historical and superhistorical thinking (рp. 3–14).

In the first part of the article the authors acquaint us with reflections of Poznan school of methodology of history. The second part is devoted to Karsavin’s ideas on the theory of history.

Keywords:Karsavin, Poznan school of methodology of history, historiography, idea of all-encompassing unity, history.

Vladimir S. Golubev. Socio-natural development: empirical generalizations, driving forces and the model of an exogenous crisis (рp. 15–42).

Empirical generalizations in the theory of evolution are based on observable regularities of structuring interpreted in terms of ergodynamics. The sources of “horizontal” social development are the opposites acting in the societies. “Vertical” development is caused by global progress. Crises of development are classified according to the decrease in components of national wealth. The model of an exogenous crisis describes the dynamics of the national wealth of societies when the source of usable energy is finite.

Keywords: evolution, socio-natural development, ergodynamics, crisis, structural energy, capital.

AkopP. Nazaretyan. Technology, psychology, and anthropological catastrophes: about studying dependences (рp. 43–69).

As we compare data about victims of social violence from various cultures and historical epochs (including wars, political repressions and everyday conflicts), we discover a paradoxical fact. While technological potential of mutual destruction and demographic densities has been progressively growing throughout millennia, the relative index of violent death rate (the ratio of average number of killings per time unites to population number) has been decreasing. Although the trend is non-linear and intermediated by anthropogenic catastrophes, it makes us suggest that there is a certain cultural factor, which has compensated for the growth of instrumental might.

Keywords: violence, technology, cultural regulation, external sustainability, internal sustainability, techno-humanitarian balance.

History of societies and civilizations

Igor I. Barinov. The Ukrainian doctrine in Austria-Hungary policy and the genesis of Ukrainian nationalism (pр. 70–89).

The article is devoted to the formation of relationships between the Austrian Government and the Ukrainian national movement in the Habsburg monarchy, as well different vectors of development of Ukrainian nationalism and its usage by the central government in Vienna, particularly, against Russia. The article describes a number of peculiarities of Ukrainian nationalism which emerge back in the Austrian times and still pressure over the Russian-Ukrainian relations.

Keywords: Austro-Hungary, Ukraine, Ukrainian nation-building, Ukrainian Nationalism.

Anton I. Kogan. One more time about the Mongolian conquests and Mongolian domination in Kashmir (рp. 90–110).

The period of Mongol domination in Kashmir has been disregarded by scholars so far and for this reason is still insufficiently studied. In the present article an attempt to fill up this gap is made. Using historical evidence found in Mongolian, Muslim, Chinese, Tibetan and indigenous Kashmiri sources the author analyses the consequences Mongol supremacy had for the kingdom of Kashmir. The main conclusion drawn in the article is that the Mongol conquest catalyzed the processes of radical cultural change in the Vale of Kashmir, which had transformed the Kashmiri state from a Hindu into a Muslim one.

Keywords: Mongol invasions, history of Central Asia, history of Kashmir, history of India, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate.

Nature and society

Alexander N. Mescheryakov. The most beautiful nature: Japan nature in the interpretation of Shiga Shigetaka (рp. 111–137).

This article deals with Shiga Shigetaka’s book “Nihon Fukei Ron” (1894) which was of major importance for the self-identity of the Japanese and for formation of the aesthetics of nature. Shiga argues that Nature of Japan is the most beautiful in the world. He also argues that Japanese expansionism is of aesthetic origin: the Japanese wants to praise the natural beauties of foreign countries in a more elegant ways than aborigines can do it.

Keywords: Japan, Shiga Shigetaka, “Nihon Fukei Ron”, nature, landscape, aesthetics, cultural geography, self-identification, cultural nationalism.

Ekaterina А. Borisova. The peculiarities of the water crisis in Central Asia (pр. 138–146).

In article draws to the conclusion that today water deficiency in the region is not actually a result of climatic changes, but of injurious activity of a man in water consumption sphere caused by population growth, out-of-date technologies of water removal and inconsistency in use of the cross-border rivers’s water between the water sufficient countries of upper courses and the water scarce countries of lower reaches. Climatic changes will inevitably cause serious negative consequences, first of all, in the form of complete degradation of glaciers, and, therefore, reduction of the Central Asian rivers’ supplies later: in medium- and long-term prospect.

Keywords: water deficiency, Central Asia, climatic changes, cross-border rivers, environmental pollution, irrigation.

Lev O. Karpachevskiy. Features of the Central Russian belt’ formation (pр. 147–154).

The European part of the forest-steppe zone was fully colonized by Slavic tribes till the 10th century. The center of this zone was the city of Kiev. Since the 8th – 9th centuries the Slavs began to penetrate to the woodlands. While colonizing these lands the Slavs formed a new landscape, similar to that of the forest-steppe zone, habitual for them. The unique Central Russian belt was created and preserved for more than 1000 years. Further evolution of landscapes depends on the system of land use. If the area of agricultural lands increases during the next decades, the region will change its appearance and assume the aspect of West European landscape.

Keywords: social-natural history, landscape and ethnos, the Central Russian plain.

Vladimir E. Polyakov. Biocenosis as a factor of the guerrilla movement in the Crimea in 1941–1944 (рp. 155–163).

The article considers the guerrilla movement in the Crimea as a factor of interaction between a man and wildlife. The author traces dependences of possible and real quantity of the guerrilla on the deployment conditions and other objective as well as subjective factors. The author studies the guerrilla movement in the Crimea as a part of biocenosis in the nature.

Keywords: Guerrillas, Crimea, biocenosis, hunger, opponent, foodstuffs.

On the edge of centuries

Vyacheslav Ya. Belokrenitskiy. Socio-ecological crisis in Pakistan: history and the current situation (рp. 164–179).

The article examines the history of irrigation in the Indus basin which is the Pakistan’s heartland. The reasons of deepening ecological crisis are analyzed which is caused by the increased shortage of water for irrigation and the enhanced water salinity and water logging during the last decades. The author makes an attempt to study the basic values shared by the Pakistani society in comparison with the other types of civilizational mentalities. Certain features of the past and the present state of society are revealed with the aim of evaluating the prospects for overcoming the crucial shortcomings in the social and economic spheres. In the conclusion some measures taken by the present leadership of the country to avoid the looming catastrophe are mentioned.

Keywords: irrigation, population growth, drainage systems, soil erosion, stability and development as basic values, creative minority, patriarchal society, corruption, ineffective governance.

The link of times

Lyudmila A. Gritsay. The transformation of the value bases of family life in Russia ib the late 19th – the early 20th centuries as a precondition of the revolutionary events in 1917–1918 (pр. 180–191).

This article discusses the process of changing the values of family life in Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. This process is manifested in a change of family patterns (from patriarchal to egalitarian) and the decrease in the importance of the family itself. Analysis of the consequences of such a transformation is proposed. The cause of the revolution of 1917–1918 became a family crisis.

Keywords: family, family life, the transformation of values, a model of family system, family crisis, 1917–1918 revolution.

Igor E. Surikov. Winckelmann – Nietzsche – Hitler: “German antiquity” and the shaping of the Nazi ideology (pр. 192–207).

The paper is an attempt to draw attention to an aspect of the Nazi ideology’ formation that usually remains in the background – i.e. the interest in classical antiquity that appeared in Germany already in the 18th century (since Winckelmann) and was rather steady later. But for some reasons the interest had in that country rather specific features (such as an emphasized attention on “strong personality”, latent anti-Semitism and so on). Nietzsche, one of the Nazis’ idols, began his career as a researcher of antiquity. And Hitler himself was sympathetic to classical matters.

Keywords: antiquity, Germany, Nazism, humanism, Winckelmann, Nietzsche.

Reviews

Leonid E. Grinin, Andrey V. Korotayev. The cycles, crises, traps of the modern World System. The study of Kondratieff, Juglar and secular cycles, global crises, Malthusian and Post-Malthusian traps / ed. by S. Yu. Malkov. Moscow: LKI, 2012. – 480 pp. (pр. 208–210).

Eduard S. Kulpin. The discussion about the Russian revolution causes (pр. 211–216).

Information

Congratulations on the anniversary of N. N. Kradin (р.217).

In memoriam

Professor Vyacheslav L. Glazychev (1940–2012) (рp.218–219).

Contents and Abstracts (pр.220–222)

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