Contents and Abstracts

Журнал: История и современность. Выпуск №2(20)/2014 - подписаться на статьи журнала

Vladimir S. Golubev. The trialetics of history (pp. 3–16).

From the perspective of trialetics, the development is interpreted as a resolution of the opposites through the emergence of “new” which is their harmonic synthesis. The general oppositions in societies as well as the ways of their resolution are considered within historical aspect. The phenomenon of noosphere is described as the system of relations between nature-man-society in their noospheric (harmonic) entity. It is shown that noosphere is not a system of total management of biosphere by the human, but a harmonic union of natural and anthropogenic components. Three main compounds of noosphere are considered, namely, the regulated biosphere, “Homo harmonicus”, and socio-humanistic society.

Keywords: socium, noosphere, biosphere, socio-humanism, dialectics, trialectics.

Valery V. Kanischev, Yuri A. Mizis. On the methods of historical-climatic investigation: Moscow weather varieties in the mid-seventeenth – twentieth centuries (pp. 17–23).

The article defines some methods of comparative analysis of weather varieties according to the descriptive sources of the past and modern instrumental measurements. The content analysis method has been applied and its preliminary results showed a colder and more humid weather in Moscow in 1657 and 1659–1660 in comparison with 1957 and 1959–1960.

Keywords: climate history, historical methods of researches, content analysis.

Yuri V. Oleynikov. Social conditions of formation of a mature person (pp. 24–45).

It is known, that a society’s future is defined by a contemporary state of its development and by a degree of maturity of a person, as well as by the abilities to adequately answer the challenges of history. The paper analyzes the historical process of formation of a mature person as an agent of socio-natural evolution of the universe.

Keywords: a person, a society, a mature person, an infantile person, becoming, development, society, the planetary whole.

History of societies and civilizations

Leonid B. Alayev. What was “Russian rural community” and what is “the Russian communality” (pp. 46–72).

The Russian peasant community has for a long time served and serves from time to time up to now as an argument in favour of the idea of an exceptional “communality” or “community-mindedness” of the Russian people. But historical data testify that this “community-mindedness” came into being not earlier than in the 17th century and it was provoked by the started scarcity of land and with intensification of feudal and state exploitation of rural population. These facts are actually recognized among the scholars but remained unknown for the broad (including intelligent) public.

Keywords: community, equalizing land-redistribution, share land-holding, K. Marx, G. L. Maurer, B. N. Chicherin, N. P. Pavlov-Silvansky, A. A. Kaufman, A. Ya. Efimenko, A. I. Neusyhin.

Krzysztof Pietkiewicz. The Union of Lublin as a source of long-century conflict between Poland and Russia in the light of Poland historiography (pp. 73–81).

This paper focuses on the views of Polish historiography on the changes in the geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe triggered by the accession to Poland of the southern-Russian lands (Ukraine), detached from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by the Polish King Sigismundus II Augustus. Consequently, for the first time in history, Poland shared a common border with Russia. The author reviews the discussions among Polish historians on the consequences of the so-called Eastern direction of Polish policy, the centuries-long Polish-Russian conflict which ended in the victory of Russia and the fall of the Common wealth of the Two Nations (Rzeczpospolita).

Keywords: Russia, Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Lublin diet 1569 year, Polish-Russian relations, great turmoil, Polish historiography.

Tatyana P. Urozhaeva. The protest movement of the education workers in Irkutsk region in the 1990s (pp. 82–91).

The period form the late 1980s to the 1990s in Russia was characterized by contradictory socio-economic and political changes which provoked the protest moods and activity in the society. That trend was typical for almost every region of Russia, including Irkutsk region, where social protest in the non-manufacturing sector manifested most intensively in the sphere of public education. The forms of protest of education workers included: rally, march, strike, hunger strike, road closures, etc. In the protest movement of educators and health professionals in Irkutsk region in the late 20th century, one can clearly trace the dynamics which consists of the beginning of social protest, its gain, radicalization and decline. In the late 1990s, social protest of education workers in Irkutsk region began to decline due to the payment of wages which stabilized and improved the situation in the region.

Keywords: education, protest movement, non-payment crisis, strike.

Nature and society

Valery V. Kanischev, Elena V. Баранова, and N. A. Zhirov. Forest resources in the history of Russian agrarian society (local and microhistorical levels) (pp. 92–111).

The article investigates the transformation of forest resources under the influence of anthropogenic factors on the local level (by the example of Orel and Tambov provinces) and on the micro-level of individual settlements, and districts. The study is based on specific historical and map's data and supports the thesis about the mosaic structure of forest land in the Central Black Earth forest-steppe area. This structure appeared as a result of natural factors and has been reinforced by human factor.

Keywords: agrarian society, forests, local history, microhistorical approach, human factor.

Tatyana A. Oreshkina. The Ecological Consciousness of people living in old-industrial towns in the Urals and their participation in municipal management (pp. 112–126).

This article is devoted to the peculiarities of municipal management and ecological policy in old-industrial cities of the Urals. It is shown that the model of social management is subject and object oriented and that leads to the escalation of ecological problems and increasing social tension.

Keywords: ecological consciousness, the ecological policy, mass-media, PR, environmental contamination.

Marina G. Shkvyrya, Ivan Yu. Parnikoza, and Vladimir E. Boreyko. People and a wolves in Ukraine (pp. 127–134).

Wolf is a pivotal carnivore completing the food chain and this species is aboriginal throughout the Ukrainian territory including the steppe area. From ancient times its existence here has been accompanied with conflicts with human. In the present paper the historical peculiarities, food and reproductive biology of wolves living in the Ukrainian steppe zones are examined and it is argued that it is rather possible to maintain a peaceful co-existence of people and wolves in this region. The authors suggest a number of measures to achieve this, in particular the establishment of the legal status for wolves (elimination of the status of a ‘vermin’ and transition to the type of game animal), teaching people to efficiently defend cattle from wolves, introduction of compensatory payments in case of proved damage from wolves (following Polish practice), broad antirabic vaccination of the wild fauna. Peculiar emphasis is laid on the necessity to cope with anti-wolves hysteria provoked by hunters and forest rangers supported by journalists of no scruples. Unlike in other countries, in Ukraine a rather broad movement in defense of wolves has developed, which maintain contacts with experts in wolves from Ukraine and Poland and tries to form a favorable social opinion for preserving this species.

Keywords: wolf, steppe, laws, scientific community.

The Twenty-First Century

Eduard S. Kulpin, Olga A. Mashkina. The key point of modernization in China (pp. 135–146).

The simultaneous decision of both Chinese and global problems becomes possible only due to emergence of essentially new technologies. The Chinese society should be capable not only to borrow new technologies as it has been doing until now, but to generate new ideas independently and to realize them in technology in different spheres of life. Is the Chinese society capable to solve the problem?

Keywords: modernization, frame of mind, education, generating of ideas.

Natalya Tsvitsinskaya. The development of the institute of recognition of state in international law (pp. 147–161).

The present article makes an attempt to define the practice employed for recognition of states and in what way international law and political component influence on this process of recognition. Does the state originate from the moment of its recognition by other states or it exists without recognition, and the recognition only confirms its existence – these are the questions that are widely debated in International Law for several decades.

Keywords: International Law, legitimation of a state.

Dmitri V. Lukyanov. Reflections on the new textbook for higher education institutions (pp. 162–174).

The link of times

Anton A. Glushko. The mnemo-historical project “Croatian “Planine” in the context of Slovenian and Ukrainian policy with respect to memory (pp. 175–190).

The article is devoted to the question of the practical usage of the mythological concept of the «Croatian Planine» in the context of the actual Slovenian and Ukrainian policyof memory.

Keywords: genocide, counter-memory, myth, self-legitimation.

Olga A. Mashkina. The travel essays (pр. 191–210).

Shamil G. Umerov. From a Document to an Epic: The Diary: 1898–1967 by Lyubov V. Shaporina (pр. 211–218).

Lyubov Shaporina (1879–1967) – the creator of the Leningrad Marionette Theater, an artist, translator, the wife of the composer Yuri Shaporin. Her “Diary” was published only in 2012 and became a social and literary event. The Diary covers the contemporary politics, economics, religion, everyday urban and countryside life, political repression, the Siege of Leningrad, literature, art, etc. The Diary's variety and expressiveness of the unfolding scenes of daily life, especially in the late 1920s and 1950s, is as striking as its sharpness of empathy, the depth and courage of understanding of moral and historical processes of time. In the Dairy's pages, the author shows up as a human in every sense of the word. She is not free of illusions or delusions, but has a mighty noble soul and is able to withstand the inhuman red world. Her direct and strong image-bearing speech raises this historical document to the level of an outstanding artistic novel of a new form.

Keywords: literature non-fiction; autofiction; memoirs; diaries; Leningrad; repressions; blockade; the siege of Leningrad; the fate of Russia; intelligentsia; feminism; women's prose; direct speech and figurative speech; epic novel.

Contents and Abstracts (pр. 219–222)