Contents and Abstracts


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Theory

Eduard S. Kulpin, Vladimir I. Pantin. Conspiracy of silence or triumph of servility? (Problems of RAS and their interpretation by Russian mass media) (pp. 3–14).

The article considers the Russian mass media's interpretation of the events related to the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is shown that this interpretation has mainly a one-sided, non-objective character and is remarkable for its incompetence. It is concluded that Russian mass media ignore the most important problems of Russia's development including the problem of the future of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian fundamental science in general. As a result, the great damage may be caused to Russian society, state and its security.

Keywords: the Russian Academy of Sciences, fundamental science, mass media.

Leonid E. Grinin, Andrey V. Korotayev. Democracy and revolution(pp. 15–35).

The article considers correlations between revolutionary events and possibilities of democracy establishment in a society in the context of historical examples and recent events in Egypt. The authors show the necessity to take into account the degree of sociopolitical and cultural readiness of a country for democratic institutions. In case of a sufficient readiness the revolutions may be gentle (velvet) and the results may be effective. The establishment of democracy proceeds with difficulties in countries with a large proportion of illiterate and rural population, with a low female status, with a widespread fundamental religious ideology, with a weak comprehension of democracy, with idealization of the present political regime by liberal intellectuals, and a lack of respect for democracy rules in the case of defeat at election by warring parties (all these characteristics are present in modern Egypt). So it is wrong to think that in contemporary situation a revolution must lead to democracy establishment. On the contrary, it can withdraw a society from the leading developmental path. The revolution is a very painful and dangerous way of societal reformation, especially in case of a transition society.

In countries like Egypt where the revolution is preceded by the decades of economic and cultural growth, a large stratum of intellectuals and students is formed; the democratic slogans resulting from the overstated expectations appear. The revolution often starts with such slogans but then it goes on with its own laws which often become antagonistic to democracy.

Keywords: the Near East, Egypt, democracy, revolution, reaction, extremists, counterrevolution, islamists, totalitarianism, overstated expectations, military coup.

Andrey Y. Flier. History of culture. From instinct to a custom, from custom to freedom (pp. 36–51).

This article considers the major periodization principles of cultural history and direction of its historical evolution as a system of modalities of social behavior demonstrated by those living beings that exist collectively: from population instinct (among animals) to social custom (people of primitive and agrarian societies) and to the people of industrial and postindustrial epochs following liberating rational behavior patterns.

Keywords: cultural history periodization, evolution, instinct, custom, rational behaviour, freedom.

History of societies and civilizations

Alexander D. Vasiliyev. Army in Turkey (pp. 52–74).

The author considers the participation of the Turkish armed forces in internal policy-making process in Turkey, analyzes the tradition, developed already in the Ottoman period, that the officers actively participate in internal political processes of the country. The evolution of the opposition's ways of resistance to army attempts to control political development of the country is also considered. Having analyzed the course of military coups and experience of participation of the armed forces in political struggle, the author comes to a conclusion that the period of military coups has come to an end, and the army has ceased to play an active role in the country's domestic affairs.

Keywords: Turkey, army, foreign and domestic policy, political Islam.

Sergey A. Panarin. Garibaldi in Russia: the trajectory of the image (pp. 75–105).

The image of any historical figure never remains constant; it strongly depends on time and place – a concrete historical context of its perception. A good case is the image of Garibaldi in Russia. The development of this person's image can be divided into three periods. The first of them lasted from 1860 to 1920; the second period started in the 1930s and finished in 1991, and the third one continues up to the present. In Russia Garibaldi's image trajectory resembles a classic sine wave. From 1860 till 1917 there was the rise of knowledge about Garibaldi and a great diversity of opinions about him. During the October revolution and in times of the Civil War his image gained the highest popularity together with a positive attitude. During the 1930–1990s, one can see the spread of knowledge about Garibaldi accompanied with a reduction of its image to a certain stereotype. Nowadays, the popularity of Garibaldi in Russia has greatly decreased. Nevertheless, despite unfavorable socio-psychological atmosphere for romantic heroes in the Russian society, Garibaldi still survives in the public consciousness as a positive one.

Keywords: image; context; Garibaldi as a political figure, as a personification of idea, as an example of life in its entirety, as a museum item, as a freemason; interventionism; oblivion history; escapism.

Alexey A. Streltsov. The cross and the vine: the sources and essence of classical education(pp. 106–126).

The author considers classical languages as a part of the secondary education, and the importance of antiquity for bringing up the younger generation. It is shown that the basis of classical education is the unity of ancient languages and literature with Christianity. The relation between conservative nature of education in classical schools and the subjects of teaching and educational process in the Middle Ages and Modern Age is described here. The influence of scientific and technological progress on the reforming of upper secondary education in the 19th century is considered in the article.

Keywords: classical education, secondary education, the history of education, humane education, humanism, picture of the world, enlightenment, humanism, classical languages.

PolinaV. Travert. The history and the image of a pub and a tavern in Russian culture. Part 2. About Russian drunkenness: prejudices, sad reality or deep tradition (pp. 127–135).

The second part of the article about drinking culture is devoted to the review of opinions of the European travelers and Russian archival materials about the drinking tradition in our country. It is concluded that drunkenness in Russia mainly had the ritual character. In spite of the embedded stereotype, the Russian people drank alcoholic beverages during people's festivals, but in everyday life drunkenness was not widespread.

Keywords: Russian drunkenness, national character, traditions and customs, people's festivals, anti-cultural phenomenon, social phenomenon.

Nature and society

Vladimir V. Klimenko, Alexey G. Tereshin. Shale gas – an energy miracle or climatic catastrophe? (pp. 136–155).

The article examines global and regional resource and ecological problems of developing and use of non-traditional gas. It is shown that despite the uncertain assessments of economic and environmental practicability of shale gas extraction, according to the available data, its use is capable of solving different regional energetic (import substitution) and environmental (replacement of dirtier fuel) problems. At the same time development of the world resources of this kind of fuel can greatly influence the chemical, thermal and radiation balance of our planet, and the burning non-traditional gas the climatic effect of carbon dioxide emissions is much greater than the climate impacts of methane leakage during extraction.

Keywords: non-traditional gas, resources, extraction, burning, carbon dioxide and methane emissions, atmosphere and climate changes.

Nataliya O. Kovaleva, Ivan V. Kovalev. The role of Gleb Dobrovolsky in the development of soil science (pp. 156–161).

Gleb Dobrovolsky – a famous soil scientist, academician of the Department of General Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, founder and dean of the first in the world Department of Soil Science. He devoted his life to the struggle for the establishment of environmental soil science as a fundamental science, for the careful and rational use of soil resources as a necessary component of the biosphere. His role in the development of soil science as the independent branch of natural history in Russia is comparable to the role of V. V. Dokuchaev, as the founder of genetic soil science.

Keywords: environmental soil science, G. V. Dobrovolsky.

Yuri V. Oleynikov. The impact of natural environment on human development  (pp. 162–181).

The article examines the environmental factors that directly and indirectly affect human activity and different aspects of the physical, mental and intellectual development of a man.

Keywords: nature, society, human, development, depression, maturity, infantilism.

On the edge of centuries

Gennady P. Grebennik. Politics of memory in Ukraine: critical notes (pp. 182–199).

The politics of memory applied in Ukraine over twenty years of independence is analyzed in the article. It is based on using history, but it is not history, although someone really wants to present it as such. The essence of the problem facing the mythologists is to invent a new identity on the basis of historical content. The author comes to the conclusion that the myth-creators of history had failed.

Keywords: politics of memory, historical politics, constructor of historical memory, historical narrative, myth, mythologeme.

Olga Y. Mikhaylova. The concept of identity: a leap across a paradigmatic rupture (pp. 200–213).

The article presents different approaches to the conceptualization of identity, as far as they mark a certain thinking direction. In the framework of the institutions of modernity the order for the research (in science methodology) of national and state identity was formed. Postmodernism suggested many approaches to understanding the phenomenon of identity which is conceived as a fragmented identity. The problem of identification is in the forefront of researchers' attention and in the emerging world of networking.

Keywords: identity, institutions of modernity, science, state, postmodern approach, the logic of streams, networks, constructivism.

The link of times

Evgeniya D. Andreyeva. Folklore movement as a cultural phenomenon of the second half of the twentieth century(pp. 214–231).

The article considers the folklore movement representing different forms of folklorism that became widespread in the republics and cities of the former USSR beginning from the mid-1960s. It was one of the most interesting phenomena of the Russian culture in the second half of the twentieth century. Folklorizm is understood as any use of authentic folklore beyond its natural context, including stage performances.

Keywords: folklore in the city, authentic folklore, folk tradition, folklore ensembles, folklorizm, folklore movement, stage image, Russian Folklore Union.

Review

Yu. A. Mizis. Review on monograph of N. S. Tsintsadze. Demographic and environmental problems of development of the Russian agrarian society in the second half of the nineteenth – beginning of the twentieth century in modern perception / Executive editor V. V. Kanischev. Tambov: TGU, 2012. – 286 p.(pp. 232–234).

Contents and Abstracts (pр.235–238)

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